A Lesson On Financial Considerations For Recent Graduates
With their hard-earned degrees in hand, most recent graduates are focused on securing full time employment and building their careers. In addition to these priorities, it’s also important to start planning for their financial future. This article outlines some considerations that can set a recent graduate on the path to long-term financial success.
Pay down debt
Graduates of today are starting their careers with better skills and education than any previous generation. However, this education also comes at a higher cost and many graduates will have accumulated significant student debt along the way. Whether accumulated through student loans, lines of credit or credit cards, paying down student debt should be a priority. Focus on paying down the debt that carries the highest interest rate first so that you minimize the amount of interest paid. Also try to pay more than the minimum payment due whenever possible.
Develop a budget
A budget will help you understand how much money you have coming in and how you’re spending your income. Begin by tracking your expenses for three months. Knowing how you’re spending your money allows you to develop a budget that sets priorities for spending and paying down debt, while starting to build investment assets to fund future goals. There are many online apps and websites that can help you set up a budget and monitor your spending.
Establish an emergency fund
An emergency fund is a pool of money set aside specifically to cover the cost of unexpected expenses or the loss of income, reducing the need to rely on credit cards, loans or personal savings intended for other financial goals. Work towards building an emergency fund of at least three to six months’ worth of living expenses. Your emergency fund should be easily accessible and it should be kept separate from your day-to-day bank account. A Tax-Free Savings Account (“TFSA”) may be a good option to accumulate your emergency fund savings, as the funds grow tax-sheltered and can be withdrawn tax-free at any time.
Build and protect your credit score
Building and maintaining a good credit history is important as lenders will view your credit report and credit score when deciding whether to grant you a credit card, loan or mortgage, as well as determining the interest rate you’ll be charged. Ensure that you’re paying your credit cards and loan payments on time, and don’t become overextended by taking on too much debt. Also remember, a potential employer or landlord may use your credit report to help determine your dependability.
While retirement may seem a lifetime away, it’s important to start saving early because of the tremendous impact compounding will have on the growth of your retirement assets. With a Registered Retirement Savings Plan (“RRSP”) your contributions are tax deductible and once in the plan, continue to grow on a tax-deferred basis until the funds are withdrawn. However, starting early is key.
If, at age 25, you begin saving $100 every week in an RRSP, assuming a compounding rate of return of 5% per annum, by age 65 your investment will grow to $663,724. By comparison, if you don’t start saving until you are 45 – and you save double the amount (i.e., $200 per week) – your investment will only grow to $357,131 by age 65, even though the total savings amount is the same ($208,000).
If you do require funds from your RRSP before retirement, there are two federal programs that may allow you to make tax-free withdrawals from your RRSP, including:
The Home Buyers’ Plan (“HBP”) allows you to withdraw up to $25,000 tax-free from your RRSP to purchase or build a qualifying home. To be eligible, you must be a first-time home buyer, as defined by the Canada Revenue Agency, and the funds must be repaid to your RRSP over a 15-year period. Your annual repayments do not affect your RRSP deduction limit. If you fail to repay the required annual repayment amount to your RRSP in any year, the amount is considered taxable income.
The Lifelong Learning Plan (“LLP”) allows you to make tax-free withdrawals from your RRSP to finance full time training and education costs, including post graduate degrees, for you or your spouse. The LLP allows you to withdraw up to $10,000 a year, to a maximum of $20,000. If either you or your spouse is disabled, part time training and education costs are eligible. LLP withdrawals must be repaid to your RRSP within 10 years. As with the HBP, your annual LLP repayments do not affect your annual RRSP deduction limit. If you fail to repay the required annual repayment amount to your RRSP in any year, the amount is considered taxable income.
Your ability to earn income through your chosen career is one of your greatest assets. However, if you’re unable to earn income due to health issues or a disability, having adequate insurance coverage is important for meeting your long-term financial security. Disability insurance is designed to replace a portion of your income in the event you become disabled due to accident or illness and are unable to work. Even if your employer provides disability coverage as part of their company benefits package, the disability benefits usually cover only a percentage of your income, so it may be beneficial to purchase supplemental disability insurance coverage.
You may also want to consider critical illness insurance, which provides a lump sum benefit if you are diagnosed with an eligible critical illness. The funds can be used to help offset the costs of home care, used to take a sabbatical and recuperate, pay off a mortgage, make adjustments to a home or car to accommodate any special needs, or even pursue private medical treatment outside Canada. How you use the money is entirely up to you.
It’s never too early for a financial plan
Developing a financial plan can help prioritize your short- and long-term goals, and determine the actions that can be taken to achieve them. A financial professional can provide information and guidance to help increase your financial literacy in areas specific to your financial concerns. Over time, as your income, personal situation and priorities change, your financial plan can be updated to ensure it continues to reflect your situation.
Beginning your investment journey
A BMO financial professional gives you access to a wide range of investment products and solutions designed to help you build and protect your wealth – now and for the future.
As you begin your investment journey, the need for sound investment advice and guidance is particularly important. BMO financial professionals are committed to building long-term client relationships and providing superior advice and service, so you can make the right investment choices for your future.
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